Spain’s Yankee Militia 1812

By 1812, the majority of Florida’s residents were Anglos: former British Loyalists, recent British immigrants, or new settlers from the American states to the north. Spanish laws were strict. To have property or any other type of resident rights, one had to serve in the militia. Many of the men listed in the Urban Militia were active in various schemes designed to divest Spain of its Florida territory; many others faithfully served to protect Spain’s right to Florida. With a bit of historical license and, given “Americanization” of Florida only nine years later, all can be considered “Yankee Militia.” (The few Spanish surnames are of Spanish residents living outside of the city.)

The names are listed as, and in the order, recorded by the Spanish; the names in parentheses are as the names were written in English a few years later. (Only those that could be confirmed are in parentheses; others obviously have a different English spelling but later spellling remains conjectural.) Most of the men resided north of St. Augustine; most along the St. Johns or St. Marys rivers or their tributaries or in the rural areas between them. Some lived in or near St. Augustine.

View muster roll for 1st Company of Urban Militia and Dragoons (Rural)
View muster roll for 2nd Company of Urban Militia and Dragoons (Rural)


  • Hawk, Robert. Florida’s Army: Militia, State Troops, National Guard, 1565-1985. Englewood, Fla: Pineapple Press, 1986.
  • Florida Memory (, Division of Florida Library & Information Services, Florida Department of State